Zimbabwe is a sending, receiving and transit country with dynamic types of migration including internal, cross border, spontaneous, planned/organized, evacuation, repatriation, resettlement, return and relocation as well as rural to urban and seasonal migration.
The present food insecurity situation in Zimbabwe is a cumulative effect of a poor agricultural season in 2014/15 and the El Niño induced drought which affected the 2015/16 season. Over 2.8 million people are food insecure throughout the country. Additionally, the country is currently affected by flooding across all the 10 provinces, affecting both urban and rural areas. About 2,615 people, particularly those who had built houses in flood plains, have been displaced by these floods. This has resulted in the breakdown of social and economic systems that support lives and livelihoods, including loss of shelter, disconnections from basic social services (health, education, food) and losses of productive, economic, financial and social assets. At the point of destination, mobile or displaced placed people tend to create unplanned pressure on existing resources and capabilities, inevitably leading to increased vulnerability and sometimes conflict. Furthermore, land reform, urban clean-up operations, political violence and natural disasters have resulted in widespread internal displacement in Zimbabwe, affecting more than 1 million individuals since 2000.
In addition, the country has large numbers of people who are highly vulnerable to displacement - 700,000 individuals living on former commercial farms with no security of tenure and 250,000 people living in irregular urban dwellings that the government has indicated must be demolished. The majority of displacements are caused by violations of the population's human rights and populations remain exposed to further violations afterwards. Recent displacement events demonstrate that such populations remain targets for political power brokers and are at risk of being forced into displacement situations in the future, with security agencies playing an increasingly prominent role in undertaking forced evictions. There are increasing levels of migration within and external to the region and beyond. There is also increasing urbanization with limited capacity for planning and expansion by relevant authorities.
The crisis in Mozambique has also resulted in an estimated number of over 5,000 Mozambican refugees and Zimbabwean returnees fleeing into Zimbabwe’s border districts. A total number of 697 households consisting of 3,075 people from Mozambique settled in the buffer zone where they are being removed by the Zimbabwean Government for security reasons (i.e. 885 people were Zimbabweans, and 2,093 people were Mozambicans while 122 people had dual citizenship and 5 were not documented at all). Other local households (about 170) who were living in the buffer zone where returnees are transitionally staying are being displaced as they are asked by the Government of Zimbabwe to move together with the returnees from the buffer zone and resettle with adjacent host communities where access to affordable and adequate shelter is limited, thereby further exacerbating the pre-existing vulnerabilities and limited access to basic social services including health, education, water, sanitation, food and livelihoods which disproportionately affect women and children.
There is increased irregular migration of Zimbabweans as a result of economic decline, food insecurity, unemployment, political tensions and relatively better livelihoods and economic prospects abroad, particularly in South Africa, Botswana and the United Kingdom. Irregular migration to South Africa and Botswana has dramatically increased Zimbabwean migrants’ risk of exposure to labor exploitation, xenophobia, sexually transmitted and other diseases as well as periodic detention followed by deportation to Zimbabwe.
Migrant sending households tend to become more vulnerable once their labor endowed migrant members (predominantly young men) have departed and, overall, high levels of irregular migration have limited the capacity for economic recovery and eroded social cohesion in affected communities. The increase in irregular migration has also fuelled the illegal cross border trade and increased the possibility of migrant smuggling and trafficking in people from Zimbabwe. The issue of human trafficking remains a concern resulting partly from increased human mobility across Zimbabwe’s borders.
Ongoing civil conflict and environmental disasters in the Horn of Africa and Great Lakes Region have also resulted in a steady flow of individuals transiting through Zimbabwe in search of livelihood opportunities and security in South Africa.
In the wake of all this, there is limited understanding by multiple stakeholders including the state of the different components of complex mobility patterns and how they affect the individuals. There are also limited resources in-country for identifying and mapping out mobility patterns to come up with better informed analysis of the crisis, its impact, and inform potential interventions. The prolonged detention of third country nationals from the Horn of Africa coupled with poor living conditions in places of detention has also raised concerns on upholding of the rights of migrants.
IOM will respond to displacements and returns throught camp management and displacement tracking, provision of shelter and non-food items, transport assistance for affected populations, health support, psychosocial support, and reintegration assistance. Further, IOM will support vulnerable households that are prone to multiple shocks, including drought and floods by providing support community stabilization and transition, disaster risk reduction and resilience building, and other sectoral interventions. To address increased rural – urban and cross-border (irregular/regular) migration as a result of deteriorating socio-economic environment in Zimbabwe, IOM will focus on counter-trafficking and protection of vulnerable migrants, technical Assistance for Humanitarian Border Management, diaspora and human resource mobilization, and migration policy and legislation support. Finally, to provide protection to third-country nationals, IOM will provide emergency consular assistance and assisted voluntary return.
IOM is an active member of the United Nations Country Team, Humanitarian Country Team, Gender Based Violence and Protection Sub Cluster, United Nations resilience and Disaster Risk Management Task Team and National Civil Protection Committee. Main government partners include the Ministry of Public Service, Labour and Social Welfare, Ministry of Local Government, Public Works and National Housing / Department of Civil Protection (DCP), Ministry of Land and Rural Resettlement, and Ministry of Health and Child Care. Main UN and NGO partners are UNHCR, UN OCHA, UN RCO, Red Cross movement, and NGOs and representatives from civil society, World Vision, Plan International, Care International, Caritas, SNV, CCDS, CFHD, LGDA.
Note: the project below are interventions that are in line with IOM’s Migration Crisis Operational Framework and country strategy to address migration issues and initiate development-principled programming to establish the foundations for longer-term recovery to complement its humanitarian programmes.
Overall Targeted Beneficiaries: : 40,000 IDPs, host communities (20,000), returnees (10,000), and affected communities (8,000)
Contact Information: Ms. Lily Sanya, Chief of Mission, firstname.lastname@example.org . Mr. Ben Mbaura, Emergency and Stabilization and Transition Coordinator, email@example.com . Website: www.iom.int Tel: +263 4 704285/88/90
IOM Offices: Country Office: Harare, Zimbabwe
International Staff: 3
National Staff: 21
- IOM delivered emergency shelters and non-food item kits to 1,650 displaced people.
- IOM provided training of trainers in shelter to 205 people.
- IOM trained 45 representatives of partner organizations on Camp Coordination and Camp
- IOM trained 73 representatives of partner organizations in community based planning and community based disaster risk management.
Disaster Risk Reduction and Resilience Building
Building resilience of communities to climate change in high migrant sending areas of ZimbabweAmount Requested: USD 3,000,000 Amount Received: USD 0Objective:This project will lead to increased mechanisms for strengthening community-stakeholder interactions and dialogue on climate change issues and priorities for action, migrant populations in climate risk prone areas are protected and capacitated to anticipate, respond and bounce back better, graduating from vulnerability to resilience, improved capacity by migration affected communities to absorb and adapt to environmental and climatic shocks and hazards, increased environmental and energy solutions secured through innovative community responsive public-private partnerships, and networks and rights of people affected by climate change induced migration strengthened.Beneficiaries:5,000 IDPs (2,500) and host communities (2,500) (3,000 women, 2,000 men), including 2,200 children and 800 elderly
Health and Nutrition
Provide access to life-saving essential nutrition and health services, strengthening community-based management of acute malnutrition, diarrhea diseases and preventive health servicesAmount Requested: USD Amount Received: USD 0Objective:To protect the nutritional status of vulnerable children under the age of five, pregnant and lactating women from deterioration, provide life-saving nutrition treatment to all children affected by acute malnutrition, conduct continuous monitoring and disease surveillance to allow for early warning and early action, and ensure prompt case management of diseases aggravated by the drought.Beneficiaries:500,000 people
Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene
Response to Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene needsAmount Requested: USD Amount Received: USDObjective:Restore access to sufficient water of appropriate quality and quantity to meet basic needs, provide access to critical WASH related Non-Food items, with a focus on the most vulnerable families in the targeted areas, and increase awareness of safe hygiene and sanitation practices, with a focus on participatory health and hygiene education and water conservation.
Provide immediate access to food for the most vulnerable while addressing the underlying causes of food insecurity and vulnerabilityAmount Requested: USD Amount Received: USDObjective:Provide emergency assistance to address immediate food needs of vulnerable households and protect rural livelihoods through provision of crop and livestock inputs.