Recent political reforms in Myanmar have led to ceasefires between several state and non-state armed groups, but conflicts still continue in Shan and Kachin States due to several reasons, including a disagreement on the terms on which to enter the National Ceasefire Agreement. In Kachin and Northern Shan State it is estimated that there are 98,000 IDPs and thousands more affected by the fighting between the army forces and various Ethnic Armed Groups. These groups have also remained in camp like settings since 2012.
In addition, inter-communal that continued from June 2012 to October 2016 led to the displacement of hundreds of thousands of people and loss of lives and livelihoods in Rakhine State. Most of Rakhine’s Muslim community still reside in camp settings which are in a perpetual cycle of repair and maintenance, and conditions inside are extremely poor. An uneasy peace can now be observed, but many people remain in camp-like settings with no further durable solution in sight. Families, who were not directly affected by the violence, have had restricted access to education, food, and medical services, which has attracted them to the IDPs camps with potential for further displacement. The displaced population is estimated at over 140,000 IDPs in both Rakhine and other parts of the country.
The low development indicators and the complex humanitarian situation in Rakhine contribute significantly to the vulnerability of local communities and thus, as seen after cyclone Giri, to the prevalence of dangerous migration patterns. Among the groups most vulnerable to the risks associated with natural disasters are casual labourers, fishermen, small farmers, widows and women, and persons with a disability. Many lose their income-generating assets and are forced to borrow money at high interest rates from predatory lenders, or migrate out of Rakhine State, leaving behind women and children to cope with further risks including displacement in an unfamiliar location, human trafficking, related exploitation, and GBV more generally.
Finally, Myanmar is vulnerable to a wide range of natural disasters, with cyclones, tropical storms and flooding a recurring phenomenon in the country’s coastal regions as was evident in 2015 whenTropical Cyclone Komen hit the country. Further, the whole country is at risk of earthquakes, droughts and fire, while the country’s mountainous regions are also exposed to landslide risks. As such IOM is trying to focus on disaster preparedness and working with communities to build capacity to cope with future potential disasters.
In 2017, IOM’s approach will focus on displacement monitoring, operations, rapid humanitarian assistance and services, emergency logistics and health while bridging the transition from emergency response to recovery. Disaster Risk Reductions initiatives will also look into strengthening current policies and capacities to enable communities and government to respond sudden onset disasters. The mission will also further explore the possibility to establish emergency stockpiles, focusing on shelter and NFIs based on IOM's global NFI catalogue.
IOM has been very active in the field of camp management, information management, coordination, and community mobilization. IOM as an agency is increasingly involved in Disaster Risk Management (DRM) and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) initiatives across the country. IOM is acting as the lead of an OFDA-funded DRR consortium in Rakhine state and has planned input in CCCM capacity building activities with a focus on natural disasters under a DRR consortium led by UNHABITAT. IOM, UNHCR and IFRC have also been discussing the country level cluster lead roles in the event of new natural disaster or conflict situation. As the Global CCCM cluster lead for natural disasters, IOM has extensive experience in leading camp management and camp coordination and conducting activities based on building camp management capacities.
Note: the projects below are in line with the Myanmar Humanitarian Response Plan (January - December 2017).
Overall Targeted Beneficiaries: 936,500 beneficiaries
Contact Information: Mr. Kieran Gorman-Best, Chief of Mission, Kgormanbest@iom.int], Emergency and Transition Coordinator, Mr. Kieran Gorman-Best. Website: https://www.iom.int/countries/myanmar Tel: +95 1 2100588, +95 973236699
IOM Offices: Country Office: Yangon; Sub-Offices: Bogalae, Hpa-An, Lashio, Loikaw, Kale, Mawlamyine, Mawlamyinegyun, Myawaddy, Myitkyina, Naypyitaw, Sittwe. IOM presence in Hakha and Muse
International Staff: 19
National Staff: 718
- Under the shelter recovery and DRR strengthening intervention, a total of 2,757 households were supported through reconstruction, repair and retrofitting of their homes as well as local carpenters being trained in safer reconstruction principles. Furthermore, a total of some 12,787 households benefited from livelihoods support.
- IOM’s Disaster Tracking Matrix (DTM) was rolled out in Rakhine State to analyze and better understand their current socio-economic situation, access to services, interaction with others, livelihoods and general welfare of resettled/relocated IDPs as well as their neighbouring villages in Minbya and Mrauk U.
- In Rakhine, local carpenters were identified from centrally located villages and invited to a pilot training. 104 carpenters from 30 target villages have been trained. IOM engineers facilitated the training in which the trainees learned about structural and technical challenges related to safe shelter construction practices.Community awareness training sessions on 'How to Build Safer Buildings' were implemented with 729 attendees attending across 17 villages.
- IOM organized 4-day training-of-trainers on psychosocial support inviting 25 participants from 6 CBOs providing relief to the survivors of the natural disaster in the 5 target townships.
- IOM implemented WASH hardware inputs (e.g. water-points) with sustainability in mind with water point maintenance committees and/or the village management committee setup during the implementation of the water point rehabilitations. These committees from the 71 villages were provided with basic maintenance training.
- 4,710 people in 61 villages were given hygiene promotion sessions in the target villages. 71 ponds, 35 boreholes,1 spring catchment, 4 wells serving a total of 27,050 beneficiaries were assisted. In addition each of the 8 ponds in Minbya downtown serves a minimum of 250 people each serving an additional 2,000 beneficiaries from surrounding villages as well.
- Twelve flights were received starting from 8 August 2016; a total of 1,658 irregular migrants have been voluntarily returned under the leadership of the Ministry of Labour, Immigration, and Population with the strong support of other relevant government counterpart Ministries, with the close support from IOM.
- At the Transit Centre IOM supported in the areas of screening, post arrival health assistance, NFI provision, WASH support, transportation assistance and other general management support.
Early Recovery and Livelihoods
Early Recovery and Disaster Risk Reduction in Rakhine StateAmount Requested: USD 9,800,000 Amount Received: USD 0Objective:IOM is seeking to: Improve readiness to prepare and respond to natural disasters; Improve construction practices for increased protection; increase awareness and preparedness among the public; increase mangrove protection on the coastline; support communities affected by natural disasters to meet immediate needs; support the RSG to develop mass evacuation strategy on State level and on micro level; provide emergency prepositioning; provide humanitarian assistance to communities affected by violence and militarization; and to improve Displacement Management Capacity for communities affected by violence.Beneficiaries:632,000 individuals
Community Stabilisation and Development in Rakhine StateAmount Requested: USD 15,000,000 Amount Received: USD 2,389,486Objective:IOM will conduct livelihoods capacity assessments to identify long-term potential to build livelihoods capacity. Conducting assessments to identify crops, livestock and businesses around which additional income can be generated through skills training with the intention of developing a skills training package (including TOT materials). Food security will be strengthened by training farmers in sustainable agricultural practices, providing them with seeds, livestock and equipment, and lessons on irrigation and land rights. There will be a focus on income generation including skills and business training, information and technical assistance relating to mangrove protection and prioritisation of SME development. Community cohesion and stability will be improved by linking protection, health and DRR related interventions with community stabilisation and community development. The intervention aims to build communities who are resilient against natural disasters, climate change, social and economic stress. IOM will support inclusive community decision making through democratic community processes and encourage a lively civil society and additionally support communities and the RSG in targeted infrastructure development, supporting economic growth and resilience.Beneficiaries:60,000 individuals
Prevention of Violent Extremism in Rakhine StateAmount Requested: USD 2,000,000 Amount Received: USD 1,454,999Objective:Prevent Violent Extremism Through Youth Networking, giving youth populations, both Buddhists and Muslims the opportunity to engage in community development work which will allow them to interact with youth members of other villages while also creating income generation opportunities through cash-for-work. Communities will benefit from increased cash generation and skills training opportunities. The program will also improve connectivity between target villages in Kayuktaw, Maungdaw, Minbya, Mrauk-U, and Pauktaw with road and bridge construction included in cash-for-work activities. Other benefits will include enhancing beneficiaries ability to advocate their needs to Government or CSO actors and to develop analytical skills to understand the broader context of their communities. Youth leadership and facilitation training and small life skills training (including psychosocial first aid training) will be included and benefit these at-risk youth populations.Beneficiaries:2,500 individuals
Protection in Rakhine StateAmount Requested: USD 5,500,000 Amount Received: USD 0Objective:IOM Myanmar will build capacity for improved migration governance by providing counter-trafficking training, material and equipment; providing technical advice in investigation and prosecution for law enforcement officials; liaising with Union and State governments to promote effective management of immigration and counter-trafficking and facilitating dialogue and cooperation on migration between countries along migratory routes. The project will promote the rule of law in migration and enhance integrated border management through advocacy, technical assistance and border management assessments while also strengthening the capacity of governments, international partners, private and civil society actors to protect migrants, by identifying vulnerabilities, providing direct assistance, legislative policy development and establishing/strengthening a referral system. Integral to the project will be research and data analysis including primary data collection and analysis of migrants€™ needs, vulnerabilities and motivations, communication patterns, information sources and factors influencing journeys.Beneficiaries:127,000 individuals
Health and Nutrition
Strengthening health system through equitable sexual reproductive health services and gender-based violence for vulnerable populations in Rakhine stateAmount Requested: USD 650,000 Amount Received: USD 0Objective:In line with IOM€™s existing MOU with the Ministry of Health and Sports (MOHS), IOM will support activities on improving health service facilities, improving health service capacity, reducing barriers to sexual reproductive health services and maternal, neonatal and child health service access, and conducting community health education and awareness raising on gender based violence and reproductive health including family planning in Rakhine State. IOM will primarily be working in Pauktaw and Buthidaung in collaboration with partners working in Rakhine State and the Township and State Health Departments. The Township and State Health Departments will be supported to deliver and improve health services for all including data collection and monitoring. IOM plans to continue to advocate for improved health access and service deliveries for all communities at local, state and national levels, and ensures links are maintained with humanitarian and development initiatives. This initiative is part of IOM€™s approach to address the needs of the €˜whole of Rakhine State€™ benefitting both the Rakhine and Muslim communities.Beneficiaries:75,000 IDPs in Rakhine State
Three Millennium Development Goal Fund (3MDG) MNCH Rakine StateAmount Requested: USD 1,650,000 Amount Received: USD 0Objective:OM will build on the existing work with the Ministry of Health and Sports (MOHS) in Myanmar and in Rakhine State to support health system strengthening using a €œwhole township€ approach, with a focus on supporting Maternal, New-born and Child Health and Primary Health Care. The strategy will focus on capacity building of health care staff, outreach services, referrals and planning and management of the THD and ensure a conflict- sensitive approach to addressing chronic health system deficiencies and work closely with State and Township Health Departments, and all communities to address critical gaps in health service availability and accessibility. The primary aim of the activities would be increased accessibility to, and availability of essential maternal and child health services of Buthidaung and Paukdaw in Rakhine State.Beneficiaries:75,000 IDPs in Rakhine State
Shelter and Non-Food Items/CCCM
Supporting populations affected by violence through the strengthening of displacement management and camp management in hard to access areas in Kachin and Non-Government Controlled Areas in Northern Shan State, MyanmarAmount Requested: USD 510,560 Amount Received: USD 2,999,984Objective:The overall objective of the CCCM Support and Capacity-Building in Kachin and Northern Shan States project is to ensure improved living conditions within the NGCA IDP camps, reduce exposure to major protection risks particularly for the most vulnerable groups - including women, children, people with specific needs and the elderly. The specific objective is to contribute to improved-management and coordination of humanitarian assistance within IDP camps in NGCA and hard to reach locations as a result of improved management of camps by designated/de facto camp management agencies. This will be achieved by: (1) Supporting and building the capacity of local national NGO's to perform camp management functions within priority IDP camps in the NGCA and hard to reach locations; and (2) Training of NGOs and other key stakeholders to increase outreach of CCCM and protection activities to surrounding/host communities.Beneficiaries:3 LNGO/CBO (supporting 40,000 IDPs)