Natural and man-made crises continue to impact Ethiopia, notably the El Nino drought in 2016 and the Horn and East Africa drought in 2017. Ethiopia continues to battle the impact of the successive droughts, exacerbated by disease outbreaks, large scale loss of livelihood assets and displacement. An estimated 8.5 million Ethiopians are food insecure, while water scarcity continues to be a driver of displacement and cause of the spread of Acute Watery Diarrhea (AWD). IOM's Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) identiﬁed a total of 1,327,066 Internally Displaced People (IDPs), 528,939 due to natural hazards and 731,001 due to internal conﬂict. This ﬁgure has more than doubled since 2016 (total of 706,567 individuals). With over 900,000 registered refugees and asylum seekers, Ethiopia is also the second largest refugee hosting country in Africa. The country continues to receive a steady inﬂux of asylum seekers, with over 73,000 South Sudanese and 6,500 Somali refugees entering Ethiopia in 2017.
IOM Ethiopia’s Emergency & Post-Crisis (EPC) unit is actively assisting affected populations across a range of thematic areas, from Preparedness & Response to Transition & Recovery. Since September 2016, the EPC unit has facilitated the safe, orderly and humane transportation of more than 149,000 refugees from border entry points to refugee camps in Gambella, Benishangul-Gumuz and Somali Region. In 2017, the EPC has also constructed over 2,000 transitional shelters in refugee camps and supported a range of livelihood & Solar/Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) initiatives for refugees and host- communities. In addressing internal displacement, the DTM provides critical insight into the situation and multi-sectoral needs of IDPs in the country, and is fully integrated into the inter-cluster information management architecture. As of October 2017, the Shelter/Non-Food Item (NFI) Cluster has identiﬁed 231,000 households with Shelter/NFI needs across Ethiopia, of whom 100,000 have been identiﬁed as displaced due to the eruption of conﬂict on the Somali/Oromia regional boundary in September 2017. As Shelter/NFI Cluster-lead and implementing agency, the unit has provided Emergency Shelter/NFI assistance to 15,000 IDP households including 4,000 cash-based interventions in 2017. IOM will continue to carry out these activities in 2018.
Migrants from Ethiopia increasingly seek employment in the Middle East, most notably in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Although migrants move both regularly and irregularly, research by the Regional Mixed Migration Secretariat suggests that at least 60 per cent of Ethiopian migrant workers who reach the Middle East do so in an irregular manner. On 29 March 2017, the Government of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (GoKSA) issued a Note Verbale declaring that all irregular migrants should voluntarily leave the country within a 90-day amnesty period - among them an estimated 500,000 are Ethiopians. The declaration indicated that those who remained longer risked detention, fines and deportation. Through diplomatic engagements by the GoE, GoKSA extended the amnesty period four times; the final deadline being on 15 November 2017. More than 2,200 migrants are currently forcibly being returned from KSA on a weekly basis. To date, more than 160,000, of whom 79 per cent are deportees, have been returned to Ethiopia. IOM has registered and profiled around 130,000 of these returnees and has provided food, nonfood, temporary shelter and onward transportation cash assistance to return to their place of origin to about 5,000 of the most vulnerable deportees. These returnees went through some kind of detentions before deportation and they returned without any belongings, assets or savings. A high number of the returnees have health problems such as TB, psychosocial and other types of illnesses. Without reintegration support, most of the returnees (young females and males) are simply melting into the streets of Addis Ababa. Such a situation heightens their exposure to trafficking and other forms of exploitation. There are more than 300,000 Ethiopian still thought to be in the KSA and the influx of deportees is expected to rise after the month of Ramadan which ends on 15 June 2018.
IOM Ethiopia is leading the sub- national and national dialogue on Durable Solutions for IDPs and the roll-out of IOM’s Progressive Resolution of Displacement Framework, with the establishment of the Durable Solutions Working Group co-chaired with the Somali Regional State. 2017 saw the endorsement of a Durable Solutions Strategy for the Somali Region, the ﬁrst of its kind in Ethiopia and a lead-up to national level dialogue and expansion of sub-national efforts. In collaboration with the GOE and other relevant stakeholders, IOM has supported the piloting of intention surveys and community assessments to ensure IDPs and impacted communities remain central to efforts to progress towards durable solutions, and that barriers are identified and addressed. IOM has positioned durable solutions for IDPs as a flagship humanitarian-development nexus issue in Ethiopia, recognizing the importance of strong engagement by development actors in fostering resilient communities and securing development gains, and reaching those furthest behind, in-line with the Sustainable Development GoalsIOM is a key agency in the Government of Ethiopia (National Disaster Risk Management Commission (NDRMC) preparedness and response efforts, for example by contributing to the annual inter-agency Humanitarian Requirements Document (HRD). As the Shelter/NFI Cluster-lead agency, co- chaired with the GoE/NDRMC, IOM is a standing member of the Ethiopian Humanitarian Country Team (EHCT), the Disaster Risk Management Technical Working Group (DRMTWG), the Inter-Cluster Coordination Group (ICCG), and the National Flood Task Force (NFTF). IOM also participates in UNHCR/ARRA-led contingency planning exercises (COP 2018 & South Sudan Regional Refugee Response Plan) and Refugee-related task forces and working groups.
Note: the projects below are part of the IOM Appeal Ethiopia Crisis Response (January - December 2018) which is in line with the South Sudan Regional Refugee Response Plan, January - December 2018. Furthermore, IOM has included additional interventions that are in line with IOM’s Migration Crisis Operational Framework and country strategy to address migration issues and initiate development-principled programming to establish the foundations for longer-term recovery to complement its humanitarian programmes.
Overall Targeted Beneficiaries: 1,885,000 individuals, including 1,500,000 IDPs, 300,000 migrants, 75,000 refugees and host community members, and 10,000 members of the conflict-affected population
Contact Information: Maureen ACHIENG, CoM, Email, Phone Number (if desirable). IOM Website, Facebook, Twitter, etc
IOM Offices: Country Office: SLO Addis Ababa, Sub-Offices: 5 Sub-offices, Other locations IOM carries out activities: 2field offices
International Staff: 30
National Staff: 283
- IOM's Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) identiﬁed a total of 1,696,145 Internally Displaced People (IDPs) 617,716 individuals due to natural hazards and 1,078,429 individuals due to internal conflict.
- Emergency Shelter/NFI assistance was provided to 15,000 IDP households including 4,000 cash-based interventions to flood, conflict and drought affected IDP’s.
- The Ethiopian Somali Regional Disaster and preparedness bureau (DPPB) in partnership with the Durable Solutions Working Group, have endorsed the Durable solutions Strategy for the Somali Region in October 2017. The strategy provides a framework to progressively resolve the widespread displacement of over 570,000 people in Ethiopia’s Somali Region.
- 1,160 transitional shelters were constructed in Nguenyyiel and kule refugee camps. In addition, shelter and latrines were provided for 98 displaced households of the host community residing in Itang Special Woreda in Gambella region. IOM shelter activities provided livelihood opportunities for over271 individuals from both refugees and host community youth through carpentry training.
- 6,050 refugee and host community individuals in Gambella region benefited from livelihood activities such as home gardening, fishery, bee keeping, poultry, tailoring and Income Generating Activities (IGA). In addition, 210 youth were provided with training on book keeping and small business management in collaboration with the woreda cooperative office.
- As of December 2017, IOM has provided transportation assistance to a total of 61,083 refugees; 54,445 South Sudanese refugees and 6,638 Somali refugees.
- As of December 2017, IOM has registered and profiled 81,000 Ethiopian returnees from KSA and provided post-arrival emergency assistance to 3000 of them.
Community Stabilization and Transition
Durable Solutions / Progressive Resolution of Displacement SituationsAmount Requested: USD 10,800,000 Amount Received: USD 800,000Objective:The Government of Ethiopia has put in place a plan to respond to the needs of all IDPs in the country, both conflict and climate induced. Around 1 million people are displaced by the conflict around the border of Oromia and Somali regions, including displacement prior to the August- September upsurge. This project will encourage the achievement of durable solutions through voluntary return to areas of origin, voluntary integration with host communities and voluntary resettlement to selected areas by rolling out of the following activities: i) an assessment survey with Somali IDPs, via Jigjiga University to inform the implementation of a reintegration and relocation programme; ii) technical support to the Government of Ethiopia, including the Somali and Oromia Regional State authorities, to promote the progressive resolution of displacement situations: iii) a Regional Durable Solution Strategy and an action plan in partnership with the Durable Solutions Working Group and the Regional Disaster Preparedness and Prevention Bureau expanded to other regions (Oromia, Afar, Gambella); iv) community mobilization, intention surveys, household registration and informed consent to inform evidence-based planning of durable solutions will be carried out as support to the HDRP's strategy of National Systems; v) Providing key information and analysis on durable solutions needs and conditions of IDPs to facilitate the decision-making process in durable solution working group forums; and vi) Support to IDPs to develop new, locally appropriate food security and livelihoods capacities with market-relevant livelihood packages and training that will provide the foundation for vulnerable households to generate sustainable incomes and progressively resolve their situation of displacement. In addition to that communities and families will benefit from skill diversification options to ensure that communities or families have access to different sources of income.Beneficiaries:800,000 IDPs
Youth Empowerment and Institutional Strengthening to Counter Trafficking in Persons (TiP) and Smuggling of Migrants (SoM)Amount Requested: USD 3,600,000 Amount Received: USD 0Objective:The increasing violence, conflict and natural disasters in the region drive the demand for smuggling services and increase the vulnerability of mobile populations to TiP. This concerns the Ethiopian and Somali nationals reaching Yemen. IOM aims to contribute to the GoE's efforts to reduce the vulnerability of youth to transnational organized crime through the following activities: i) strengthening the capacity of GoE structures to effectively manage borders (with Somalia, South-Sudan and Kenya), combat TiP and SoM and promote regional cross-border cooperation; ii) providing business set-up and vocational skills training to vulnerable youths from at-risk zones and supporting them with job placement and microbusiness start-up services; iii) building the capacity of local training institutions to provide quality vocational training to increased numbers of beneficiaries through needs assessment and technical assistance; and iv) transforming youth recreational centres into resource centres by equipping them to educate youth on safe migration and sustainable livelihood options.Beneficiaries:1,000 youths at risk of trafficking (at least 50% will be women)
Displacement Tracking Matrix
Mobility Tracking and Flow MonitoringAmount Requested: USD 4,365,511 Amount Received: USD 3,765,511Objective:Mobility Tracking - The GOE, NDRMC and IOM's DTM Mobility Tracking provides critical insight into the situation and multi-sectoral needs of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Ethiopia and is fully integrated into the inter-cluster information management architecture. In 2018, IOM will: i) see the fulfilment of the core implementation of DTM - Mobility Tracking throughout 2018; and ii) expand the DTM - Mobility Tracking Programme, to better capture displacement data and trends related to the spontaneous return of IDPS to areas of origin/spontaneous relocation. Flow Monitoring - This programme aims to provide a stronger evidence base for humanitarian response, development planning and operations with a comprehensive regional analysis generated through the collection of primary data at a sub-regional level - in Yemen, Djibouti, Somalia and Ethiopia.Beneficiaries:1,740,000 IDPs
Basic health service assistanceAmount Requested: USD 2,500,000 Amount Received: USD 0Objective:Internally displaced persons at increased risk of health problems. According to WHO's health cluster IDPs are most affected by communicable diseases like malaria, pneumonia, ARI, diarrhea, measles, and scabies in addition to either underlying or acute malnutrition due to limited access to health services at IDP sites. Most affected among IDPs are children under the age of 5, pregnant and lactating women, the elderly and people with disabilities. IOM will contribute to increasing access to health for IDPs and host communities through the following activities: i) provide basic health services by mobile health and nutrition team; ii) support immunization programs (routine and campaign at IDP sites); iii) provide counseling (psychosocial support),emergency contraceptives, screening for STIs and post-exposure prophylaxis for gender based violence survivors); iv) conduct health education and promotion activities; v) Strengthen public health emergency management and response of IDP sites officials; and vi) advocate for IDP inclusive and sensitive health policy and planning.Beneficiaries:35,340 IDPs and host community individuals
Renewable Energy-Based Agriculture and Rural Development SupportAmount Requested: USD 3,000,000 Amount Received: USD 0Objective:A multi-sectoral intervention is proposed to use clean energy solutions and improve water provision, develop new livelihood opportunities, enhance health and protection, reinforce governance and mitigate the impacts of climate change through the following activities: i) provision of environmentally friendly, low-cost, alternative renewable energy interventions; ii) providing IDP households with access to light, smoke-free and efficient household cooking stoves, safe and protected recycling waste management systems with communal latrines, diet variety and food production through community-based soar and biogas energy interventions; iii) agricultural output and crop diversity support, training, seeds, tools, construction of ponds, and a distribution of solar pumping and irrigation kits: iv) distribution of clean cooking stoves, support the construction of bio digesters, promote clean energy-based business opportunities for women groups and introduce tree nurseries; and v) training government and other actors on solar and water energy solution, opening a technical helpline and producing solar water scheme kits.Beneficiaries:17,210 IDPs
Peacebuilding and Conflict Resolution
Peacebuilding and Conflict ResolutionAmount Requested: USD 500,000 Amount Received: USD 0Objective:IOM will support increased investment in conflict-resolution and peacebuilding as a prevention and mitigation factor for displacement, thereby reducing the need for subsequent humanitarian assistance and promoting the durability of solutions to displacement. IOM activities will include: i) support to the Government of Ethiopia through the Ministry of Federal and Pastoralist Development Affairs (MOFPDA) in its peacebuilding community-based conflict early warning (C-Warn) and community peace dividend initiatives as part of strengthening of effective systems and structures that prevent and address conflict as well as subsequent displacements; ii) enhancing the capacities of regional authorities and local communities to better monitor, prevent, mitigate and address inter- and intra-communal disputes and displacements and implement durable solutions; iii) reinforcing existing traditional conflict prevention and peacebuilding structures and systems and support to community initiatives to prevent and resolve future conflicts; and iv) building the capacities of clan leaders/elders and community members to foster community dialogue and cooperation to address root causes of displacement and to improve grassroots risk assessment and early conflict waring systems as well as, strengthening existing dispute management mechanisms by supporting the establishment of steering committees.Beneficiaries:10,000 IDPs
Shelter and Non-food items
Shelter/Non-Food Items AssistanceAmount Requested: USD 36,871,735 Amount Received: USD 12,571,735Objective:IOM's emergency assistance will build on existing funding from ECHO, OFDA and the Ethiopia Humanitarian Fund (EHF). IOM has been providing cash-based assistance to IDPs in Somali, Oromia and Gambella regions cash-based interventions will continue to be implemented where appropriate to increase flexibility and accountability. As a Shelter/NFI cluster lead agency IOM will: i) conduct shelter risk reduction activities in disaster prone areas including support for house repair and strengthening as well as awareness raising to promote safe building practices reaching 6,600 households or 36,000 individuals; ii) scale up Shelter/NFI delivery in 2018, responding to the urgent needs of 69,000 households or 379,000 individuals through an environmentally friendly and economically sustainable in-kind response as well as through cash base interventions; iii) support the pre-positioning of Shelter/NFI materials to target 6,000 households (or 33,000 individuals) who are newly displaced and not accounted for under the HDRP; iii) provide cash support in urban areas and support for house repair and rehabilitation, as well as temporary shelter construction for returnee families, targeting 24,300 households or 133,650 individuals; iv) continuing to support coordination among local authorities, UN agencies and humanitarian partners to harmonize the optimization of resources for emergency assistance and improve delivery; and v) hosting a dedicated national shelter/NFI cluster coordinator with supporting information management capacity as well as sub-national Shelter/NFI Cluster Coordinators in key regions.Beneficiaries:582,450 IDPs
Water, Sanitation and Hygiene
WASH AssistanceAmount Requested: USD 3,086,620 Amount Received: USD 1,436,620Objective:In 2018, building on on-going WASH interventions in affected areas funded by OFDA, and in synergy with in-going Health, Shelter/NFI and livelihood activities. IOM will significantly scale up its support by increasing access to safe water, sanitation and hygiene to prevent further displacements, address the needs already displaced population and avoid disease outbreaks in congested and underserved displacement sites through the following activities; i) Construction of sanitation facilities (latrines and bathing areas) that adhere to SPHERE and national standards in IDP sites and key institutions, including health facilities and schools; ii) Rehabilitation of non-functioning water points/boreholes, including infrastructure damaged by conflict and flooding, using solar energy when possible as well as the rehabilitation/extension of existing water schemes to increase access to IDP sites, vulnerable communities and/or institutions dependent ion water tracking; iii) Building capacities at the kebele and woreda level to ensure the correct operation and maintenance of the rehabilitated and expanded infrastructure (water as well as sanitation infrastructure); iv) Building the WASH-related capacity of health/hygiene extension workers present in the communities, as well as support and promote community-led total sanitation (CLTS), to enhance positive community-wide behavior change; v) Distribution of WASH NFIs to affected populations including hygiene kits and water treatment chemicals, with a special emphasis on displaced populations and those at risk of water related disease outbreaks; vi) Pre-positioning of WASH materials to promptly assist in the early response phase of an emergency as well as building on the capacity developed through a regional Solar WASH program; and vii) Supporting a range of Solar/WASH initiatives for refugees and host communities, aiming to increase solar capacity and the solar/water system in the country.Beneficiaries:60,000 IDPs
Refugee and Host-Community Livelihoods
Livelihood AssistanceAmount Requested: USD 2,500,000 Amount Received: USD 0Objective:In 2018, IOM will continue to improving the living conditions and self-reliance of refuges and host communities in Gambella, Benishangul -Gumuz and Somali Regions through increased access to market-relevant livelihood opportunities. IOM aims to create alternative livelihoods schemes, build capacities and market access for vulnerable refugees and host communities and diversify household food production for improved dietary consumption. IOM activities will include: i) targeting 16,500 refugees and host community members (3,000 households) for income generation schemes and vocational training in collaboration with regional technical, vocational and education training (TVETs) institutions; and ii) enhancing living conditions and self-reliance for vulnerable women by building their capacity to better manage and sustain income generating activities. Training will enable women to acquire tradable skills for self-sufficiency, which will increase household income and enhance women's capacity to access basic services such as education and health.Beneficiaries:16,500 refugees
Refugee Shelter and WASH
Refugee Shelter and WASH AssistanceAmount Requested: USD 5,000,000 Amount Received: USD 0Objective:In 2018, IOM will provide shelter assistance to improve the living conditions of refugees and host communities in Gambella, Benishangul-Gumuz and Somali Regions through the following activities: i) provide safe, durable, cost effective and culturally adapted shelters and latrines for 27,500 refugees (5,000 households) based on needs identified with the Government of Ethiopia and UNHCR; ii) IOM's Shelter Programming is aligned with the UNHCR National Strategy adopted in 2017, which focuses on beneficiary engagement in the construction process, cash-based programming where appropriate, and mitigation of the environmental impact of shelter construction. This programming will also ensure gender mainstreaming as well as inclusive and innovative design for persons with disabilities through support of pilot projects (10% of overall beneficiaries); and iii) pairing of shelter and latrine construction to ensure simultaneous delivery of household infrastructure.Beneficiaries:27,500 refugees
Refugee Transportation AssistanceAmount Requested: USD 2,500,000 Amount Received: USD 2,000,001Objective:IOM will aim to support an estimated 35,000 refugees from South Sudan expected to enter Ethiopia in 2018, as well as an estimated 3,000 from Sudan and 5,000 refugees from Somalia based on initial inter-agency planning exercises. With funding secured from a few donors, IOM refugee transportation activities in 2018 are partially funded but further support is required to ensure the full implementation of the following planned interventions: i) Transportation and Relocation assistance ensures refugees access to life-saving services in camps, including food, WASH, health and protection assistance; ii) IOM is engaged in logistical planning on routing, safety, security and ensuring the protection needs of refugees are considered during transport: iii) Pre-Departure Medical Screening (PDMS) to ensure refugees are fit for travel to the camps, referring those with medical concerns to local health facilities; and iv) IOM will also support the establishment and expansion of screening centres at border entry points, reception centres and transit sites to facilitate the registration and effective management of refugees prior to transportation and works to support livelihoods and community stabilization initiatives for the communities impacted by refugee arrivals and transportation corridors.Beneficiaries:43,000 refugees
Counter-Trafficking and Protection of Vulnerable Migrants
Capacity BuildingAmount Requested: USD 1,000,000 Amount Received: USD 0Objective:Managing human mobility in an orderly and safe manner benefits migrants and communities and countries of both origin and destination. IOM has identified 30 woredas (districts) that face high levels of human trafficking. In these locations, IOM will improve counter trafficking capacities and will strengthen the local legislative and criminal justice ability to effectively prosecute traffickers and adjudicate cases. Moreover, the project will work to improve identification, referral, protection and assistance services to victims of trafficking. Activities will include: i) capacity building and facilitation of technical cooperation between woredas where high rates of outward irregular migration and risk of trafficking in persons have been overserved. To that end, IOM will produce awareness materials, implement campaigns and share information with a special focus on women and children vulnerable to sexual and labor exploitation; and ii) IOM will also enhance and increase efforts to protect VoTs in particularly affected woredas.Beneficiaries:30 woredas; 1,000 returnees
ProtectionAmount Requested: USD 1,000,000 Amount Received: USDObjective:Evidence indicates that many Ethiopians returning from KSA have suffered from violence, abuse or other rights violations, including detention, labour exploitation and, in some cases, TiP. As part of its mandate to protect vulnerable migrants and promote safe migration, IOM, along with partner shelter NGOs, will provide immediate and tailored assistance to vulnerable returnees, most of whom VoTs, USMC, migrants with serious medical conditions or single mothers who are returning from KSA through its transit centre. Depending on individually-assessed needs, services will include the following: i) Family Tracing and Reunification (FTR) for USMC; ii) Food, water and access to WASH facilities; iii) NFIs based on needs; iv) Temporary shelter; v) Physical and mental healthcare; vi) Life and coping skills training; vii) Informal education, skills development and training; and viii) Awareness raising on safe migration practices.Beneficiaries:5,000 most vulnerable returnees
Health Assistance and Psychosocial SupportAmount Requested: USD 360,000 Amount Received: USD 0Objective:Most of the Ethiopian migrants returning home were detained prior to their return to Ethiopia. As a result, returnees often arrive in Ethiopia with urgent needs for lifesaving medical assistance as well as psychosocial and psychological support. The returnees have not only faced physical ailments but most of them are also suffering from psychological distress and anxiety, which at times reach toxic levels. A few returnees suffer from more severe conditions, including psychotic episodes and post-traumatic reactions. In 2018, IOM will continue to offer post-arrival medical screening, psychological counselling, on-site treatment as well as referral assistance for critical cases to various hospitals in Addis Ababa.Beneficiaries:9,600 most vulnerable returnees (including unaccompanied and separated migrant children (USMC), persons with disabilities, persons with serious health conditions, pregnant and lactating women as well as victims of trafficking (VoTs))
Transportation Assistance for Affected Populations
Transit AssistanceAmount Requested: USD 5,410,000 Amount Received: USD 520,000Objective:Many of the returnees from KSA return to Ethiopia empty-handed with very few personal items and possessions, the majority have experienced detention in KSA. They usually arrive exhausted, dehydrated and weak without immediate plan or accommodation arrangements. In order to safeguard their health, security and dignity, the following support is required: i) continuation of post-arrival reception assistance at the airport, including profiling and registration of returnees; ii) overnight accommodation services at the Transit Centre (TC); iii) food and water and access to WASH facilities at the TC; iv) Local transportation assistance (airport to TC, TC to local bus stations, etc.); v) provision of NFIs such as shoes, bars of soap, blankets, dignity kits, diapers and infant care products based on needs; and vi) provision of onward transportation assistance in the form of cash grants for the most vulnerable returnees to return to their respective areas of origin.Beneficiaries:22,000 vulnerable returnees from KSA
Community- Based ReintegrationAmount Requested: USD 2,000,000 Amount Received: USD 0Objective:IOM aims to implement community activities in 30 kebeles across different regions of Ethiopia located in woredas with high numbers of returnees from KSA. The degree of success of individual reintegration often highly depends on the active engagement of families and communities in local development initiatives that complement and support the reintegration of returnees. To complement individual economic assistance and promote social integration, interventions will focus on community members and will include the following: i) investments in key value chains such as agriculture, fisheries, transportation or trade will be explored; and ii) fostering a participatory approach in the reintegration process, where families and communities are involved and their specific needs and concerns addressed.Beneficiaries:2,000 beneficiaries
Individual-Based Reintegration SupportAmount Requested: USD 10,000,000 Amount Received: USD 0Objective:Ethiopian migrants continue to move to KSA in an irregular manner in the face of hardships in their country of origin. In order to address this cycle of migration, provision of individual reintegration packages for those returning from KSA returnees should be given high priority, with a focus on addressing the root causes of irregular migration. Such assistance will not only support reintegration but will also reduce the risk of unsafe re-migration as well as vulnerability to trafficking. Assistance under this component will benefit from IOM's recent EU Trust Fund-supported efforts to establish/strengthen systems that promote a new holistic and sustainable reintegration approach whereby reintegration is conceived in its individual, but also community-based and capacity building dimensions. These newly-established systems aim to reach out to the grassroots level and foster a partnership approach to reintegration support, particularly among government, civil society and community actors. These approaches will be, in close collaboration with the GoE, formalized/institutionalized through the development of Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) on the provision of return and reintegration support. IOM's reintegration support will comprise: i) Provision of individualized reintegration packages that will facilitate access to microfinance, business skills training, job placement services, tools to establish small businesses and linkages with technical and vocational training via partnerships as well as, empower and protect migrants returning from KSA; ii) establishment of linkages with existing economic empowerment programmes provided by the government and other United Nations entities and NGOs. This will support the reintegration of returnees and improve their livelihoods while also economically benefitting receiving communities.Beneficiaries:5,000 returnees