Nicaragua was ranked number four in the Global Climate Risk Index 2016 and number 14 in the face of natural disaster risks, according to the World Risk Index of 2016. Nicaragua is hence exposed to various geological and hydrometeorological phenomena (such as droughts, earthquakes, tropical storms, and hurricanes,) due to its geographical location. These render the country highly vulnerable to natural disasters, with the potential to cause significant human losses and substantial environmental and economic damage. One of the most affected areas by climate change and droughts is known as the Dry Corridor. 11.5 per cent of the country’s area (encompassing 27 municipalities) is affected by severe drought; 36.9 per cent of the area (covering 63 municipalities) by high-level drought; and 51.5 per cent of the area (encircling 88 municipalities) by low-level drought (See map). In November 2015, a loss of between 50 and 75 per cent in the production of basic grains was reported and 1.2 million cattle at risk of suffering from the same effects. As a result, 60 per cent of men and women have been forced to leave their homes and migrate to other areas of the country in search of deployment.
Nicaragua has six dormant volcanoes and six active ones7, generating great seismic activity. In April 2014, a series of earthquakes hit the capital city of Managua resulting in two deaths and 42 wounded, and 2,378 damaged homes.8 In June 2016, two earthquakes (6,1 and 5,1 in magnitude) struck the northeast region of the country, resulting in widespread material damages.9In November 2016, hurricane Otto impacted the country, affecting four departments and 14 municipalities, mainly the departments of Río San Juan and Rivas: 11, 678 people from 73 communities were hosted in 152 shelters. No human losses were reported.
There is no Humanitarian Response Plan led by OCHA and the Nicaraguan government but humanitarian needs do exist that must be addressed. Nicaragua’s National System for the Prevention, Mitigation of, and Attention to Disasters (SINAPRED) is in charge of the management, planning, and execution of preventive tasks to reduce vulnerabilities in the face of natural threats and generate resilience. The government’s humanitarian response system to emergencies is highly resilient, the work done at IOM is very precise and we are attentive to the call the government, following the country’s procedures. IOM is part of the UNCT, UNETE, and the Risk Management and Resilience Team. IOM works in coordination with the following: Ministry of the Interior; General Directorate of Migration (DGME); Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Ministry of Labour; Ministry of the Family, Adolescents and Children, National Police; UN agencies: UNHCR, UNFPA, WFP, UNICEF, NGOs: Casa Alianza Nicaragua, Nidia White Women’s Movement, Marijn Foundation; UCA; CIDEA; Jesuit Service for Migrants; National Coalition Against Human Trafficking; Save The Children; RedTraSex; LGBTQI organizations (e.g. Redtrans, RDS); trade union organizations; and organizations working with migrants.
Note: the projects below are in line with the "Plan Nacional de Desarrollo Humano del Gobierno de Reconciliación y Unidad Nacional" developed by the Humanitarian Country Team. Furthermore, IOM has included additional interventions that are in line with IOM’s Migration Crisis Operational Framework and country strategy to address migration issues and initiate development-principled programming to establish the foundations for longer-term recovery to complement its humanitarian programmes.
SIMAS, Familias del corredor seco de Nicaragua sufren por sequía. Available from http://bit.ly/2kYDhq6
VíaNica, Volcanoes. Available from http://bit.ly/1GgSVCS
El País, Nicaragua cuenta las pérdidas. Available from http://bit.ly/2ljQ07d
RPP, Dos terremotos sacuden Nicaragua y dejan daños materiales. Available from http://bit.ly/2ljNNbE
UNETE, Nota informativa OTTO No. 5, 2016.
Germanwatch, GLOBAL CLIMATE RISK INDEX 2016. Available from http://bit.ly/2dN8jNq
Universität Stuttgart, WorldRiskReport 2016. Available from http://bit.ly/2byiHJD
MASRENACE, Impacto del Cambio Climático en la Región Autónoma del Atlántico Norte, RAAN, estudio de caso, Puerto Cabezas. Available from http://bit.ly/2mCmFGo
Sistema Nacional para la Prevención, Mitigación y Atención de Desastres. Ley 337. Available from http://bit.ly/2kyIRM0
Secretaría Ejecutiva Sistema Nacional para la Prevención, Mitigación y Atención de Desastres. Guía para el Funcionamiento del COMUPRED. Available from http://bit.ly/2l4uNdB
Contact Information: Ms. Carmen Paola ZEPEDA RODRÍGUEZ, Head of Office, email@example.com.
IOM Offices: Country Office: Managua, Nicaragua; presence in Chinandega, Somotillo, and Bilwi
National Staff: 17
- IOM emergency response to Otto tropical storm through the United Nations Emergency Team (UNETE);
- Chinandega-Somotillo Irregular Migration Prevention Programme: Movie forums on trafficking in persons; workshop on risk factors and care needs for migrant women. Beneficiaries: 1, 167 persons;
- Strengthening of the Migration School: Rehabilitation of the Migration School’s infrastructure (147.21 m2). The improvement tasks included: restoration of suspended ceiling, lighting, paint, floor removal, installation of air conditioning, and furniture for the teaching staff and for the training room. It was also equipped with screens, projectors, and televisions, as audio-visual media for training. In addition, the spaces for the office of the Direction of the Migratory School and the modules for the teaching staff were enabled. Beneficiaries: All DGME personnel who receive vocational training at the school nationwide;
- Training to immigration officers in border posts: IOM provided technical assistance to write the methodological design and facilitate the preparation of the teaching team made up of three facilitating officers and a support officer from the DGME, involved with the Migration School. In the methodological design, the themes developed were: Current migration issues at the global and regional levels; Special protection for vulnerable populations; General Directorate of Migration Law and its Regulations; General Directorate of Migration Law and its link to the Family Code; and the Equal Rights and Opportunity Act, Law No. 648 (2008). The trainings were carried out at the border posts of Peñas Blancas, Guasaule, San Carlos, and El Espino, with a total of 167 participants (59 women and 144 men).
- Provided technical assistance, migration and migration-related workshops, and equipment to the following: General Directorate of Migration; Women’s Ministry; National Police – Commissary for Women and Children; Usura Cero programme; Public Ministry; Secretariat of the Caribbean Coast; Ministry of Health; Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources (MARENA); National Assembly
Food Security and Early Recovery
Los efectos del cambio climático en poblaciones vulnerables y en la movilidad humana en El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras y NicaraguaAmount Requested: USD 15,000 Amount Received: USD 0Objective:Contribute to incorporate the topic of human mobility in public policies on climate change adaptation (and vice versa) in the countries of the Northern Triangle and Nicaragua.Beneficiaries:Vulnerable populations in the aforementioned countries
Fortalecimiento institucional para la promoción de los derechos de las personas migrantes irregulares en tránsito por NicaraguaAmount Requested: USD 135,000 Amount Received: USD 0Objective:Improvement of capacities and infrastructure of mobile shelters used by DGME officers in border posts for the management of migration and protection of irregular migrants.Beneficiaries:Immigration officers in border posts and vulnerable migrants
Protection and Camp Coordination and Camp Management
Programa Regional para el fortalecimiento de capacidades para la atención y protección de la población migrante en condición de vulnerabilidad en Mesoamérica – Nicaragua (Fase VII)Amount Requested: USD 4,000 Amount Received: USD 0Objective:Strengthen capacities for the management of migration in crisis and the prevention of trafficking in persons in the context of crisis.Beneficiaries:Public servants, immigration officers in border posts, National Police, National Army, Customs, MINSA, and DGME