Established in 1951, IOM, the UN Migration Agency, is the leading intergovernmental organization in the field of migration. Working in natural disasters, man-made crisis, and protracted displacement contexts, IOM aims to deliver coordinated, timely, and context-specific assistance to populations in need, including but not limited to internally displaced persons, refugees, other migrants, and host communities. IOM also works in crisis contexts to address the drivers and root causes of displacement to promote longer-term solutions to individuals, households and communities
The IOM Humanitarian Compendium aims to provide an up-to-date overview of IOM’s crisis programming, and outstanding funding requirements, as coordinated under interagency Humanitarian Response Plans and Regional Refugee Response Plans, as well as IOM’s Migration Crisis Operational Framework (MCOF).
The MCOF was unanimously adopted by IOM’s member states in 2012 through a resolution of the IOM Council. The MCOF complements existing international systems and is specifically designed to fit in with the Cluster Approach of the Inter Agency Standing Committee (IASC) and the international refugee protection regime. It also identifies opportunities and challenges related to migration and mandates the organization to work holistically in its crisis response and ensure strategic planning and working across sectors (humanitarian, recovery, transition and development) and in the various phases of crises, with a focus on prevention and solutions to root-causes. Further, by combining IOM’s humanitarian activities and migration management services, the MCOF provides IOM with the analytical aptitude to effectively target and respond to the human mobility dimension of crisis. This approach corresponds with the “New Way of Working” that was adopted at the World Humanitarian Summit in 2016.
IOM is a member of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC), and is the global lead agency for the Camp Coordination and Camp Management (CCCM) cluster in natural disasters. IOM Apart from its mandated global cluster responsibilities IOM actively coordinates other clusters/ – Including but not limited to the thematic areas of Logistics, Early Recovery, Health, Protection, Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH), Shelter and Non-food Items – at the country level.
IOM crisis programming continues to be implemented on a global scale, including all of today’s large-scale emergencies. The graph below indicates the total funding requirements for IOM’s crisis programming in order to adequately address the identified needs of the crisis-affected populations. Funding requirements are presented by country or crisis.
Camp Management and Displacement Tracking
As global cluster lead for Camp Coordination and Camp Management (CCCM) in emergencies induced by natural disasters, IOM aims to improve living conditions of displaced persons and migrants in camps and camp-like settings, facilitating the effective provision of assistance and protection, advocating for durable solutions and ensuring organized closure and phase-out of camps. Furthermore, the provision of humanitarian assistance is highly dependent on trends and patterns of human mobility. To this end, IOM roles out the Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) to inform the humanitarian response and strengthen preparedness.
Shelter and Non-Food Items
IOM has a coordination role in approximately one third of the Shelter clusters world-wide either as lead or co-lead agency. Through its activities, thousands of crisis-affected persons have benefitted from temporary and permanent shelters, non-food items, and shelter kits. IOM also routinely manages large logistics pipelines in emergency responses.
Transport Assistance for Affected Populations
IOM provides life saving transportation assistance to individuals either moving temporarily or permanently to a place of origin, transit, or destination within a country or across an international border. This includes evacuations, resettlement, repatriation, facilitating the return of IDPs to areas of origin, relocation, and as a last resort evacuation assistance for those caught in crisis.
IOM provides health support during crises and throughout movement processes. Activities include the provision of primary health care for migrants, displaced persons, returnees, and communities in crises, health referrals, medical evacuations, public and environmental health such as prevention of disease outbreaks and early detection, and setting up transitional or temporary health facilitates as well as rehabilitating existing health structures.
As an active member of the IASC Reference Group on Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Emergency Settings, IOM has started up, chaired and/or co-chaired the Group in several emergencies. IOM aims to protect the well-being of crisis-affected populations by reducing psychosocial vulnerabilities, promoting community resilience and ownership, and supporting aid that takes into account psychosocial and cultural diversity.
Integration and reintegration assistance is the core of IOM’s post-crisis programming to help end displacement situations in line with the framework for durable solutions. It addresses immediate, medium and long-term needs, including housing, protection, stability, and livelihood opportunities. (Re)integration assistance is also provided in the context of assisted voluntary return.
Activities to Support Community Stabilization and Transition
As part of stabilization efforts undertaken by states, IOM implements comprehensive community stabilization and transition programmes to prevent further forced migration, restore trust among communities, vulnerable populations and authorities, laying the foundations for durable solutions, lasting peace, and sustainable development. Programming areas include: improving livelihood opportunities and markets; peacebuilding, social cohesion and integration efforts; rehabilitation of infrastructure and basic service provision; improving local governance; and reintegration of former combatants.
Disaster Risk Reduction and Resilience Building
Often as part of reconstruction efforts, IOM aims to reduce and mitigate risks of displacement and increase the resilience of communities to cope with disasters. This includes the provision of the necessary framework, methodology, and tools to analyze the causal factors of disasters, reduce exposure to hazards and lessen the vulnerability of people and livelihoods.
Land and Property Support
IOM assists government and societies to address land and property issues to prevent future forced migration and to allow for durable solutions to address ongoing displacement. This is done by identifying and eliminating land-related barriers to sustainable return and reintegration, increasing the in-depth understanding of governments and communities of the different facets of these issues, and clarifying land ownership and tenure.
Counter-trafficking and Protection of Vulnerable Migrants
IOM provides protection and assistance during crisis situations to vulnerable migrants, including victims of trafficking, exploitation or abuse and unaccompanied migrant children. IOM also builds the capacities of governments and civil society actors by creating training opportunities for government officials and NGOs and providing expert technical support for the development of counter-trafficking policies and procedures.
Technical Assistance for Humanitarian Border Management
To facilitate the movement of people resulting from crises, IOM supports states in building robust immigration and border management capacity and systems that consider human rights and refugee law, trafficking in persons and freedom of movement.
Emergency Counsellor Assistance
IOM supports states to provide nationals caught in a crisis with appropriate, timely and efficient emergency consular services, including the issuance of emergency travel documents or laissez-passers, as well as other services which can contribute to their protection before, during and after a crisis.
Diaspora and Human Resource Mobilization
IOM promotes diaspora and other networks of qualified professionals to support the national development, rehabilitation and reconstruction processes of countries recovering from crises, in transition or conflict, through the temporary/virtual return or socio-economic reintegration of skilled and qualified nationals from abroad, and the facilitation of the recruitment of temporary foreign workers in sectors vital to the country’s recovery but lacking the necessary human resources.
Migration Policy and Legislation Support
Migration policy and legislation support is provided to States, individually and collectively, in building the policy, as well as the administrative and legislative, structures and capacities that will enable them to manage migration during crises effectively and humanely and fulfil their responsibilities in identifying, assisting and protecting vulnerable mobile populations affected by crises.
IOM’s humanitarian communications aim to create a two-way exchange of information between the responders (including humanitarian actors) and crisis-affected populations which addresses the information needs of affected populations and generates feedback that contributes to an appropriate humanitarian response and facilitates recovery planning, while including intercultural considerations and community messaging aimed at reducing anti-migrant sentiments.